Annex A - Group Research Proposal

Group Project Proposal (Science)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE
Names: Carlin Tan, Winston Ngoui, Jia Tong, Reuben Thomas
Class: S2-05
Group Reference: A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H   
1.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:


[    ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research


[    ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)


X ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)


[    ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics


[    ] Observational and exploratory research


[    ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research

2.    Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format:


The investigation of factors that affects the rate of decomposition in bread.
Our aim of this experiment is to find out the best condition bread can stay healthy. We aim to send bread to poor countries.


Countries in need of food
- Rome
- Africa
- Zimbabwe
- India
- Nepal


By 2050, the world would run out of food. Everyday, we use up food resources, and yet our population of humans are rapidly increasing. Our food resources are decreasing, and our population of humans are increasing. Estimated, by 2050, we will run out of Food.


The consumption of electricity by an average refrigerator is about 350 kWh. It's much more energy efficient than older refrigerator models that uses an average of 1400 kWh. Our goals is to find out which items would affect the rate of electricity the most. Such example are Moistness of bread, the type of lights that would affect the growth mold such as Uv lights, normal LED lights and of course, no lights at all. Using this, we would be able to help the companies decide on which factors to push on which would help in making the models of fridges much cheaper. It would also help to reduce the amount of energy used by the fridges of this day should they push on these factors


A.    Question being addressed



To find out the affect the rate of decomposition of bread.
To find out better way to actually preserve food in poor, rural countries where basic necessities are not met such as electricity and food etc.
The independent variables are:
- The moisture of the pieces of bread
- The type of light the pieces of bread are exposed to
- The amount of air the pieces of bread are exposed to


The dependent variables are:
- The size of the mouldy patches in each bread
- The colour of how the bread are
- Overlay some tracing paper on the mold, trace the shape, and then overlay the tracing paper on some graph paper, and count the squares..


The constant variables are:
Amount of lux received from the different lighting
Temperature of the surroundings of the place
Amount of light received a day(24 hours of light)


B.    Hypotheses

- When the bread pieces are exposed to negligible amount air and water, there will hardly be any mould, likewise when the bread pieces are exposed to lots of air and water,the quantity of mould would start to grow.
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C.    Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)


Equipment List:
- pieces of wholemeal bread
- 9 small ziplock bag
- 3 white LED. ($2.95 each bought from RS components, RS stock No.454 4661)
- 3 UV LED. ($5.63 each bought from RS components, RS stock No.454 4396)
- 50 ml cylinder/syringe. You buy it from a pharmacy.
- Ruler/graph paper
- A box that doesn’t allow light to pass through
- A stand at a fix position
- Cookie cutter a small one.
- Charger thingy for plug to USB
- 3 Thermometers. Brought from home.  


Chart made for this:
                                     


• Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection


Step 1: Take 5 pieces and cut it out into 18 disks shapes while wearing gloves.
  Step 2:Put 2 pieces in each compartment.
  Step 3 :In each compartment,use a syringe to pour 20 ml of water on the piece on the right and moisten by the same value everyday.
  Step 4: Activate the lights and close the box.
  Step 5: Monitor the temperature and adjust lights accordingly by wiring into series instead of parallel if the temperature is significantly high(More than 20 degrees celsius) in a specific chamber.
  Step 6: Stop the experiment once mould has fully grown on a piece of bread or stop after 15 days at a maximum.
  Step 7: Measure the size of the mold using the size of the bread on a piece of graph paper and calculating how many of the squares would have mould and using that to calculate the percentage.
  Step 8: Throw away the bread pieces after 7 days of measuring.




• Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.


  1. As this experiment involves the growth of mould on bread, it is important to not consume the mouldy pieces of bread.
  2. When using of LED lights and water, the water can shock us if we accidentally pour it on the LED lights. Do not touch any electrical wiring or lights with wet hands.
  3. 24 hour of LED might caused overheat and fire. Check the LED lights periodically and make sure it is doesn’t overheat.
  4. The UV lighting may also cause the styrofoam to melt causing differences in temperature of the set-ups
  5. The mouldy pieces of bread may contaminate other foods nearby, make sure to keep the bread pieces away from any food.


• Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses


1.    Tabulate the size of the mould. Occasionally we will take out the disc and check how far deep the mould has grown inwards. 
2.  We would overlay some tracing paper on the mold, trace the shape, and then overlay the tracing paper on some graph paper, and count the squares.
3.    Plot a table of how the different amount of water, type of lighting in a table that would  affect the size, colour and depth of the mold.
4.    From the table we can find out the best way to preserve food over a long period of time such as using what types of light, amount of water and what kind of air environment.
5. This is the table for filling it up


D. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order.


Benjamin, C. (Designer). (2001, November 27). an imprint of Addison Wesley [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.farms.com/commentaries/nancy-lidster-pig-handling-defining-science-57385.aspx


Best, C. (Designer). (2014, August 18). Led Bulbs Led Energy Star For Commercial Lighting [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://kapkovcommerciallighting.blogspot.sg/2014/08/led-bulbs-led-energy-star-for.html


Cute Little, F. (Designer). (2009, October 28). Thermometer Icon [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.iconarchive.com/show/influenza-icons-by-cute-little-factory/Thermometer-icon.html


Mark, K. (15, October 14). World may not have enough food by 2050: Report. Retrieved from http://www.cnbc.com/id/102086930


Michael, B. (n.d.). How much electricity does my refrigerator use?. Retrieved from http://michaelbluejay.com/electricity/refrigerators.html

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